Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracModWSGI

Jul 25, 2015, 4:11:14 PM (7 years ago)



  • TracModWSGI

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac and mod_wsgi =
     4[ mod_wsgi] is an Apache module for running WSGI-compatible Python applications directly on top of the Apache webserver. The mod_wsgi adapter is written completely in C and provides very good performance.
     8== The `trac.wsgi` script
     10Trac can be run on top of mod_wsgi with the help of the following application script, which is just a Python file, though usually saved with a `.wsgi` extension).
     12=== A very basic script
     13In its simplest form, the script could be:
     16import os
     18os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/usr/local/trac/mysite'
     19os.environ['PYTHON_EGG_CACHE'] = '/usr/local/trac/mysite/eggs'
     21import trac.web.main
     22application = trac.web.main.dispatch_request
     25The `TRAC_ENV` variable should naturally be the directory for your Trac environment (if you have several Trac environments in a directory, you can also use `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` instead), while the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` should be a directory where Python can temporarily extract Python eggs.
     27On Windows:
     28 - If run under the user's session, the Python Egg cache can be found in `%AppData%\Roaming`, for example:
     30os.environ['PYTHON_EGG_CACHE'] = r'C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Python-Eggs'
     32 - If run under a Window service, you should create a directory for Python Egg cache.
     34os.environ['PYTHON_EGG_CACHE'] = r'C:\Trac-Python-Eggs'
     37=== A more elaborate script
     39If you're using multiple `.wsgi` files (for example one per Trac environment) you must ''not'' use `os.environ['TRAC_ENV']` to set the path to the Trac environment. Using this method may lead to Trac delivering the content of another Trac environment, as the variable may be filled with the path of a previously viewed Trac environment.
     41To solve this problem, use the following `.wsgi` file instead:
     43import os
     45os.environ['PYTHON_EGG_CACHE'] = '/usr/local/trac/mysite/eggs'
     47import trac.web.main
     48def application(environ, start_response):
     49  environ['trac.env_path'] = '/usr/local/trac/mysite'
     50  return trac.web.main.dispatch_request(environ, start_response)
     53For clarity, you should give this file a `.wsgi` extension. You should probably put the file in its own directory, since you will expose it to Apache.
     55If you have installed Trac and eggs in a path different from the standard one you should add that path by adding the following code at the top of the wsgi script:
     58import site
     62Change it according to the path you installed the Trac libs at.
     64=== Recommended `trac.wsgi` script
     66A somewhat robust and generic version of this file can be created using the `trac-admin <env> deploy <dir>` command which automatically substitutes the required paths (see TracInstall#cgi-bin).
     69== Mapping requests to the script
     71After you've done preparing your .wsgi script, add the following to your Apache configuration file (`httpd.conf` for example).
     74WSGIScriptAlias /trac /usr/local/trac/mysite/apache/mysite.wsgi
     76<Directory /usr/local/trac/mysite/apache>
     77    WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}
     78    Order deny,allow
     79    Allow from all
     83Here, the script is in a subdirectory of the Trac environment.
     85If you followed the directions [TracInstall#cgi-bin Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory], your Apache configuration file should look like following:
     88WSGIScriptAlias /trac /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.wsgi
     90<Directory /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin>
     91    WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}
     92    Order deny,allow
     93    Allow from all
     97In order to let Apache run the script, access to the directory in which the script resides is opened up to all of Apache. Additionally, the `WSGIApplicationGroup` directive ensures that Trac is always run in the first Python interpreter created by mod_wsgi; this is necessary because the Subversion Python bindings, which are used by Trac, don't always work in other sub-interpreters and may cause requests to hang or cause Apache to crash as a result. After adding this configuration, restart Apache, and then it should work.
     99To test the setup of Apache, mod_wsgi and Python itself (ie. without involving Trac and dependencies), this simple wsgi application can be used to make sure that requests gets served (use as only content in your `.wsgi` script):
     102def application(environ, start_response):
     103        start_response('200 OK',[('Content-type','text/html')])
     104        return ['<html><body>Hello World!</body></html>']
     107For more information about using the mod_wsgi specific directives, see the [ mod_wsgi's wiki] and more specifically the [ IntegrationWithTrac] page.
     110== Configuring Authentication
     112We describe in the the following sections different methods for setting up authentication.
     114See also [ Authentication, Authorization and Access Control] in the Apache guide.
     116=== Using Basic Authentication ===
     118The simplest way to enable authentication with Apache is to create a password file. Use the `htpasswd` program to create the password file:
     120$ htpasswd -c /somewhere/trac.htpasswd admin
     121New password: <type password>
     122Re-type new password: <type password again>
     123Adding password for user admin
     126After the first user, you dont need the "-c" option anymore:
     128$ htpasswd /somewhere/trac.htpasswd john
     129New password: <type password>
     130Re-type new password: <type password again>
     131Adding password for user john
     134  ''See the man page for `htpasswd` for full documentation.''
     136After you've created the users, you can set their permissions using TracPermissions.
     138Now, you'll need to enable authentication against the password file in the Apache configuration:
     140<Location "/trac/login">
     141  AuthType Basic
     142  AuthName "Trac"
     143  AuthUserFile /somewhere/trac.htpasswd
     144  Require valid-user
     148If you're hosting multiple projects you can use the same password file for all of them:
     150<LocationMatch "/trac/[^/]+/login">
     151  AuthType Basic
     152  AuthName "Trac"
     153  AuthUserFile /somewhere/trac.htpasswd
     154  Require valid-user
     157Note that neither a file nor a directory named 'login' needs to exist.[[BR]]
     158See also the [ mod_auth_basic] documentation.
     160=== Using Digest Authentication ===
     162For better security, it is recommended that you either enable SSL or at least use the “digest” authentication scheme instead of “Basic”.
     164You'll have to create your `.htpasswd` file with the `htdigest` command instead of `htpasswd`, as follows:
     166# htdigest -c /somewhere/trac.htpasswd trac admin
     169The "trac" parameter above is the "realm", and will have to be reused in the Apache configuration in the !AuthName directive:
     172<Location "/trac/login">
     174    AuthType Digest
     175    AuthName "trac"
     176    AuthDigestDomain /trac
     177    AuthUserFile /somewhere/trac.htpasswd
     178    Require valid-user
     182For multiple environments, you can use the same `LocationMatch` as described with the previous method.
     184'''Note: `Location` cannot be used inside .htaccess files, but must instead live within the main httpd.conf file. If you are on a shared server, you therefore will not be able to provide this level of granularity. '''
     186Don't forget to activate the mod_auth_digest. For example, on a Debian 4.0r1 (etch) system:
     188    LoadModule auth_digest_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/
     192See also the [ mod_auth_digest] documentation.
     194=== Using LDAP Authentication
     196Configuration for [ mod_ldap] authentication in Apache is a bit tricky (httpd 2.2.x and OpenLDAP: slapd 2.3.19)
     1981. You need to load the following modules in Apache httpd.conf
     200LoadModule ldap_module modules/
     201LoadModule authnz_ldap_module modules/
     2042. Your httpd.conf also needs to look something like:
     207<Location /trac/>
     208  # (if you're using it, mod_python specific settings go here)
     209  Order deny,allow
     210  Deny from all
     211  Allow from
     212  AuthType Basic
     213  AuthName "Trac"
     214  AuthBasicProvider "ldap"
     215  AuthLDAPURL "ldap://,dc=co,dc=ke?uid?sub?(objectClass=inetOrgPerson)"
     216  authzldapauthoritative Off
     217  Require valid-user
     2223. You can use the LDAP interface as a way to authenticate to a Microsoft Active Directory:
     225Use the following as your LDAP URL:
     227    AuthLDAPURL "ldap://,DC=com?sAMAccountName?sub?(objectClass=user)"
     230You will also need to provide an account for Apache to use when checking
     231credentials. As this password will be listed in plaintext in the
     232config, you should be sure to use an account specifically for this task:
     234    AuthLDAPBindDN
     235    AuthLDAPBindPassword "password"
     238The whole section looks like:
     240<Location /trac/>
     241  # (if you're using it, mod_python specific settings go here)
     242  Order deny,allow
     243  Deny from all
     244  Allow from
     245  AuthType Basic
     246  AuthName "Trac"
     247  AuthBasicProvider "ldap"
     248  AuthLDAPURL "ldap://,DC=com?sAMAccountName?sub?(objectClass=user)"
     249  AuthLDAPBindDN
     250  AuthLDAPBindPassword "the_password"
     251  authzldapauthoritative Off
     252  # require valid-user
     253  require ldap-group CN=Trac Users,CN=Users,DC=company,DC=com
     257Note 1: This is the case where the LDAP search will get around the multiple OUs, conecting to Global Catalog Server portion of AD (Notice the port is 3268, not the normal LDAP 389). The GCS is basically a "flattened" tree which allows searching for a user without knowing to which OU they belong.
     259Note 2: You can also require the user be a member of a certain LDAP group, instead of
     260just having a valid login:
     262    Require ldap-group CN=Trac Users,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com
     265See also:
     266  - [ mod_authnz_ldap], documentation for mod_authnz_ldap
     268 - [ mod_ldap], documentation for mod_ldap, which provides connection pooling and a shared cache.
     269 - [ TracHacks:LdapPlugin] for storing TracPermissions in LDAP.
     271=== Using SSPI Authentication
     273If you are using Apache on Windows, you can use mod_auth_sspi to provide
     274single-sign-on. Download the module from the !SourceForge [ mod-auth-sspi project] and then add the
     275following to your !VirtualHost:
     277    <Location /trac/login>
     278        AuthType SSPI
     279        AuthName "Trac Login"
     280        SSPIAuth On
     281        SSPIAuthoritative On
     282        SSPIDomain MyLocalDomain
     283        SSPIOfferBasic On
     284        SSPIOmitDomain Off
     285        SSPIBasicPreferred On
     286        Require valid-user
     287    </Location>
     290Using the above, usernames in Trac will be of the form `DOMAIN\username`, so
     291you may have to re-add permissions and such. If you do not want the domain to
     292be part of the username, set `SSPIOmitDomain On` instead.
     294Some common problems with SSPI authentication: [trac:#1055], [trac:#1168] and [trac:#3338].
     296See also [trac:TracOnWindows/Advanced].
     298=== Using Apache authentication with the Account Manager plugin's Login form ===
     300To begin with, see the basic instructions for using the Account Manager plugin's [ Login module] and its [ HttpAuthStore authentication module].
     302'''Note:''' If is difficult to get !HttpAuthStore to work with WSGI when using any Account Manager version prior to acct_mgr-0.4. Upgrading is recommended.
     304Here is an example (from the !HttpAuthStore link) using acct_mgr-0.4 for hosting a single project:
     307; be sure to enable the component
     308acct_mgr.http.HttpAuthStore = enabled
     311; configure the plugin to use a page that is secured with http authentication
     312authentication_url = /authFile
     313password_store = HttpAuthStore
     315This will generally be matched with an Apache config like:
     317<Location /authFile>
     318   …HTTP authentication configuration…
     319   Require valid-user
     322Note that '''authFile''' need not exist (unless you are using Account Manager older than 0.4). See the !HttpAuthStore link above for examples where multiple Trac projects are hosted on a server.
     324=== Example: Apache/mod_wsgi with Basic Authentication, Trac being at the root of a virtual host
     326Per the mod_wsgi documentation linked to above, here is an example Apache configuration that a) serves the Trac instance from a virtualhost subdomain and b) uses Apache basic authentication for Trac authentication.
     329If you want your Trac to be served from e.g. !, then from the folder e.g. `/home/trac-for-my-proj`, if you used the command `trac-admin the-env initenv` to create a folder `the-env`, and you used `trac-admin the-env deploy the-deploy` to create a folder `the-deploy`, then first:
     331Create the htpasswd file:
     333cd /home/trac-for-my-proj/the-env
     334htpasswd -c htpasswd firstuser
     335### and add more users to it as needed:
     336htpasswd htpasswd seconduser
     338(keep the file above your document root for security reasons)
     340Create this file e.g. (ubuntu) `/etc/apache2/sites-enabled/` with the following contents:
     343<Directory /home/trac-for-my-proj/the-deploy/cgi-bin/trac.wsgi>
     344  WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}
     345  Order deny,allow
     346  Allow from all
     349<VirtualHost *:80>
     350  ServerName
     351  DocumentRoot /home/trac-for-my-proj/the-env/htdocs/
     352  WSGIScriptAlias / /home/trac-for-my-proj/the-deploy/cgi-bin/trac.wsgi
     353  <Location '/'>
     354    AuthType Basic
     355    AuthName "Trac"
     356    AuthUserFile /home/trac-for-my-proj/the-env/htpasswd
     357    Require valid-user
     358  </Location>
     363Note: for subdomains to work you would probably also need to alter `/etc/hosts` and add A-Records to your host's DNS.
     366== Troubleshooting
     368=== Use a recent version
     370Please use either version 1.6, 2.4 or later of `mod_wsgi`. Versions prior to 2.4 in the 2.X branch have problems with some Apache configurations that use WSGI file wrapper extension. This extension is used in Trac to serve up attachments and static media files such as style sheets. If you are affected by this problem attachments will appear to be empty and formatting of HTML pages will appear not to work due to style sheet files not loading properly. Another frequent symptom is that binary attachment downloads are truncated. See mod_wsgi tickets [ #100] and [ #132].
     372''Note: using mod_wsgi 2.5 and Python 2.6.1 gave an Internal Server Error on my system (Apache 2.2.11 and Trac Upgrading to Python 2.6.2 (as suggested [ here]) solved this for me[[BR]]-- Graham Shanks''
     374If you plan to use `mod_wsgi` in embedded mode on Windows or with the MPM worker on Linux, then you'll even need version 0.3.4 or greater (see [trac:#10675] for details).
     376=== Getting Trac to work nicely with SSPI and 'Require Group' ===
     377If like me you've set Trac up on Apache, Win32 and configured SSPI, but added a 'Require group' option to your apache configuration, then the SSPIOmitDomain option is probably not working.  If its not working your usernames in trac are probably looking like 'DOMAIN\user' rather than 'user'.
     379This WSGI script 'fixes' things, hope it helps:
     381import os
     382import trac.web.main
     384os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/usr/local/trac/mysite'
     385os.environ['PYTHON_EGG_CACHE'] = '/usr/local/trac/mysite/eggs'
     387def application(environ, start_response):
     388    if "\\" in environ['REMOTE_USER']:
     389        environ['REMOTE_USER'] = environ['REMOTE_USER'].split("\\", 1)[1]
     390    return trac.web.main.dispatch_request(environ, start_response)
     394=== Trac with PostgreSQL ===
     396When using the mod_wsgi adapter with multiple Trac instances and PostgreSQL (or MySQL?) as a database back-end, the server ''may'' create a lot of open database connections and thus PostgreSQL processes.
     398A somewhat brutal workaround is to disabled connection pooling in Trac. This is done by setting `poolable = False` in `trac.db.postgres_backend` on the `PostgreSQLConnection` class.
     400But it's not necessary to edit the source of Trac, the following lines in `trac.wsgi` will also work:
     403import trac.db.postgres_backend
     404trac.db.postgres_backend.PostgreSQLConnection.poolable = False
     410import trac.db.mysql_backend
     411trac.db.mysql_backend.MySQLConnection.poolable = False
     414Now Trac drops the connection after serving a page and the connection count on the database will be kept minimal.
     416//This is not a recommended approach though. See also the notes at the bottom of the [ mod_wsgi's IntegrationWithTrac] wiki page.//
     418=== Other resources
     420For more troubleshooting tips, see also the [TracModPython#Troubleshooting mod_python troubleshooting] section, as most Apache-related issues are quite similar, plus discussion of potential [ application issues] when using mod_wsgi. The wsgi page also has a [ Integration With Trac] document.
     424See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracFastCgi FastCGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]